Glossary of Lighting Terms
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Lighting that is used to accent or highlight a particular object such as a work of art. To be effective accent lighting should be approximately four or five times the level of ambient light in the area. House plants can be accented by aiming an uplight at the wall behind the plant, creating a dramatic silhouette of the plant against the wall.
A unit expressing the rate of flow of electric current.
The type of incandescent lamp that is generally used in most indoor residential lighting applications.
The approximate current which the lamp will draw at design volts
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
The organization that develops voluntary guidelines and produce performance standards for the electrical and other industries.
Genuine alabaster is a very fine variety of gypsum (hydrous calcium sulfate) found in nature. It is translucent and its color is often white, pearly, or silky colorless but it sometimes has subtle reddish-brown bands running through it. It is often used for decorative objects such as light fixtures or figurines. Some light fixtures use faux alabaster, which is usually man-made glass. Both genuine and faux alabaster can be very attractive; however, the faux alabaster is generally much less expensive.
General lighting that usually lights up an entire space.
Average Rated Life
An average rating, in hours, indicating when 50% of a large group of lamps have failed, when operated at nominal lamp voltage and current; manufacturers use 3 hours per start for fluorescent lamps and 10 hours per start for HID lamps when performing lamp life testing procedures; every lamp type has a unique mortality curve that depicts its average rated life. For PHOTO-OPTIC lamps average rated life refers to the operating period after which on statistical average, 50% of the lamps will perform within their specified values.
A device used with an electric-discharge lamp to obtain the necessary circuit conditions (voltage, current and waveform) for starting and operating; all fluorescent and HID light sources require a ballast for proper operation. Ballasts have two primary functions: 1) start the lamp and 2) control operation of the lamp once it has started. High frequency electronic ballasts operate lamps more efficiently (30 - 40% at equivalent light output) and eliminate the hum and visible flicker normally associated with standard magnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts also typically have better power quality than magnetic ballasts (higher power factor and lower THD).
Ballast Efficacy Factor (BEF)
Relative light output (ballast factor) divided by input power (watts). Used to measure the level of efficiency of similar ballast models. For example, the OSRAM SYLVANIA QT2X32IS which has a ballast factor of 0.90 and input watts of 59 (BEF=1.53), is more efficient than competitors’ electronic ballasts with ballast factor of 0.875 and input watts of 62 (BEF=1.41).
Ballast factor (BF)
Relative light output as compared to a reference ballast (i.e. BF of 0.90 would yield 90% of a lamp’s rated lumens. The measured ability of a particular ballast to produce light from the lamp(s) it powers; ballast factor is derived by dividing the lumen output of a particular lamp/ballast combination by the lumen output of the same lamp(s) on a reference ballast.
OSRAM SYLVANIA ballasts are designed to have a life expectancy of 60,000 hours. To maximize life, ambient temperature should be kept as low as possible. It is also important to maintain effective dissipation of heat using the lighting fixture as a heatsink for the ballast enclosure.
Power consumed by a ballast that dissipates as heat instead of being converted into light. Electronic ballasts operate more efficiently than magnetic or hybrid ballasts. A typical ballast loss for a standard two lamp magnetic ballast is 20 watts, which an electronic equivalent would only be 7 watts.
There are three types of lighting ballasts: 1) Magnetic: an inefficient device that uses a core and coil assembly transformer to perform the minimum functions required to start and operate the lamp; 2) Hybrid or “low frequency electronic”: essentially a magnetic ballast with a few electronic components that switch off voltage to the lamp coil once the lamp has started. A minimal increase in efficiency is obtained via more expensive magnetic core material and the absence of power to the lamp coils during operation; 3) High frequency electronic: a ballast that operates lamps at frequencies above 20,000 Hz. Maximum efficiency is obtained through the use of electronic circuitry and optimum lamp operating characteristics.
The lamp base mechanically holds the lamp in place in the application. The lamp base directly or indirectly (via a cable or lead-in wires) conducts electricity from the circuit to the lamp and can be designed to dissipate heat. Lamp bases should be operated within specified temperature range.
Also called the beam spread; the angular dimension of the cone of light from reflectorized lamps encompassing the central part of the beam out ot the angle where the intensity is 50 percent of maximum.
A measure of the spread of light from a reflectorized light source, a special-shaped lamp with a reflective coating inside the bulb to direct the light forward. The beam spread may be very narrow (narrow spot), very wide (wide flood), or something in-between (narrow flood, for example). Examples of "reflectorized light sources" are MR11, MR16, PAR20, PAR30, PAR38, R40, ER30, and BR30 lamps.
Hard, soft or quartz glass enclosure, which can contain a vacuum, elemental inert gas or metal and a means of light generation (filament or electrodes).
Cable Lighting System
A low voltage lighting system where the mechanism holding the light fixtures and conducting electricity to those fixtures is a pair of cables .
The unit of measure indicating the luminous intensity (candlepower) of a light source in a specific direction; any given light source will have many different intensities, depending upon the direction considered.
A curve that represents the variation in luminous intensity (expressed in candelas) in a plane through the light center of a lamp or luminaire; each lamp or lamp/luminaire combination has a unique set of candlepower distributions that indicate how light will be spread.
An electrode that emits electrons. A fluorescent lamp cathode emits or discharges electrons to the cathode at the other end of the lamp.
Center Beam Candlepower (CBCP)
The intensity of light produced at the center of a reflector lamp, expressed in candelas.
A chandelier is often the focal point of the dining room. As such it should be hung about 30 inches above the tabletop and should be at least 6 inches narrower than the table on each side.
Color rendering index (CRI)
The Color Rendering Index (CRI) measures the effect a light source has on the perceived color of objects and surfaces. High CRI lights makes virtually all colors look natural and vibrant. Low CRI causes some colors to appear washed out or even to take on a completely different hue. The scale ranges from 1 (low pressure sodium) to 100 (the sun). A CRI of 85 is considered to be very good.
Color temperature (CT)
Color temperature, which is measured in Kelvin, indicates whether a lamp has a warm, midrange or cool color appearance. “Warm” light sources have a low color temperature (2000-3000K) and feature more light in the red/orange/yellow range. Light with a higher color temperature (>4000K) features more blue light and is referred to as “cool.”
These tables may help you better understand the concept of Color Temperature.
KELVIN ASSOCIATED EFFECTS & MOODS APPROPRIATE APPLICATIONS
2700° Friendly, Personal, Intimate Homes, Libraries, Restaurants
3500° Friendly, Inviting, Non-threatening New Offices, Public Reception Areas
4100° Neat, Clean, Efficient Older Offices, Classrooms, Mass Merchandisers
5000° Bright, Alert, Exacting Coloration Graphics, Jewelry Stores, Medical Exam Areas, Photography
KELVIN LIGHT SOURCE
1600° Sunrise or Sunset
2800° Household Incandescent Lamp
3000° Warm White Fluorescent Lamp
3500° Neutral White Fluorescent Lamp
4100° Cool White Fluorescent Lamp
5000° Professional Light Booth
5200° Bright Midday Sun
6500° Heavily Overcast Sky
Colored Glass Filter
This term means that the glass is formed with the color in the glass as opposed to the color being coated on the surface. This is accomplished by mixing various metal oxides in the glass composition. These colored glass filters are primarily used for aesthetic purposes in lighting. They are NOT designed for the precise control of the spectral bands, as are optical color filters (dichroic filters).
Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
Compact fluorescent lamps employ small diameter tubes that are bent so they begin and end in a ceramic base. This allows them to be produced in a wide variety of configurations, greatly extending the applications for fluorescent lighting. The compact fluorescent has a high color rendering (CRI>80) and a long life (>8,000 hours).
A lighting system comprised of light sources shielded by a panel parallel to the wall and attached to the ceiling and distributing light over the wall.
A lighting system comprised of light sources shielded by a ledge or recess, and distributing light over the ceiling and possibly the upper part of the wall.
The Canadian Standards Association, like UL and ETL in the USA, is a not-for-profit membership-based association serving business, industry, government, and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. It is an organization that works in Canada and around the world to develop safety standards that address real needs, such as enhancing public safety and health, advancing the quality of life, and helping to preserve the environment.
Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
A measurement used to describe the relative color appearance of a white light source. CCT indicates whether a light source appears more yellow/gold/orange or more blue, in terms of the range of available shades of “white.” CCT is given in kelvins (unit of absolute temperature).
A specification of the color appearance of a lamp, relating its color to that of a reference source heated to a particular temperature, measured in degrees Kelvin (K); CCT generally measures the “warmth” of “coolness” of light source appearance.
A measure of the flow of electricity, expressed in amperes (A).
Brand name of SYLVANIA’s line of U-shaped fluoresent lamps, available in T-8 and T-12 versions.
Decorative lamps, such as candelabra or post lights, in a variety of shapes and bases.
A device in an electrical circuit used for varying the brightness of lamps in a lighting installation. Dimming
controls are ideal for almost any type of room because they can change the amount of lighting to suit each mood or
activity and they can help you look good. The use of dimmers with incandescent, xenon, and halogen light sources
also increases the life of the lamps and decreases the use of electrical energy. (Please see the Table below.)
Percentage Dimmed Energy Savings Lamp Life Increase
10% 10% 2 x
25% 20% 4 x
50% 40% 20 x
75% 60% > 20 x
Electric current without alterations. DC current is usually supplied by a battery, a transformer, or photovoltaic cells.
Lamps that have two bases opposite one another for series electrical connection, mechanical mounting and heat dissipation.
A small light fixture recessed into the ceiling that usually concentrates the light in a downward direction. Synonyms: recessed downlight, “can”, recessed can.
Brand name of SYLVANIA’s line of compact fluorescent lamps.
The rate at which a lamp is able to convert power (watts) into light (lumens). A watt of electricity is the amount of power in and a lumen or light is the amount of power out. Represented in lumens per watt and found by dividing the light output in lumens by the electrical power input (to the lamp). Also see LPW performance.
The electric arc in any fluorescent system is generated by a ballast. The ballast starts the lamp, then limits its operating current and provides power factor correction. Modern electronic ballasts perform these functions with great efficiency and provide other control functions as well.
Electronic Control Systems
lighting used when the normal lighting fails.
Ballasts contain circuits that limit electrical noise conducted onto the power line or radiated through the air, otherwise referred to as EMI/RFI. OSRAM SYLVANIA ballasts comply with FCC 47 CFR Part 18, Non-Consumer limits for commercial applications.
End Foot Candles (EFC)
A measure of that portion of the total light output of a T-2 lamp that passes through a .250” orifice placed at the end of the lamp.
A measure of work done by an electrical system over a given period of time, often expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh).
A tungsten wire purposely positioned inside a lamp bulb, that when heated electrically generates radiation in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet ranges. Tungsten material replaced carbon almost universally, as it has great tensible strength, and is very durable. However, the basic reason for its selection as the best filament material is the fact that it can be burned very near its melting point without evaporating rapidly. Lamp filaments are offered in a variety of designs optimized for specific applications.
Flexible Track Lighting System
A low voltage or a line voltage lighting system where the suspended track (sometimes called a monorail) holding the light fixtures in place and also conducting electricity to those fixtures can be bent into creative shapes.
A reflectorized lamp whose emitted beam pattern is enlarging. Also a luminaire consisting of lamp and reflector at fixed distance providing a wide field of illumination.
High efficiency lamp that uses an electric discharge through low-pressure mercury vapor to produce ultra-violet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube that makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.
A unit of illuminance equal to 1 lumen per square foot. The commonly United States unit of measurement of lighting
level (illumination) is the foot-candle (fc). The international unit of measurement of lighting level (Illumination) is the lux
(lx). The relationship between the lux and the foot-candle is 1 fc = 10.76 lux.
The number of times per second that an alternating current system reverses from positive to negative and back to positive, expressed in cycles per second or hertz (Hz).
All OSRAM SYLVANIA Quicktronic ballasts contain inherent electrical protection. Although there is no need to externally fuse the ballast, should code or regulation require one, 3 amp slow blow fuses are recommended.
Excessive brightness that may be caused by either direct of indirect viewing of a light source.
Glow to arc transition
In order to achieve full rated lamp life, a ballast should start a lamp so that the time from when the lamp begins to glow to the time the lamp arc strikes should be as short as possible. OSRAM SYLVANIA instant start ballasts typically accomplish this task within 50 msec.
The ballast case and fixture must always be grounded. The grounding helps assure safety, proper lamp starting, and acceptable EMI/RFI performance.
(Tungsten-halogen lamp) high pressure lamps containing halogen gases which allow the filaments to operate at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. Halogen lamps use a filament, but since it is sealed in a pressurized capsule containing halogen gas, the lamp provides brighter, whiter light with better color characteristics, longer service life and improved energy efficiency.
An electrical frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency; for example, if 60 Hz is the fundamental frequency, then 120 Hz is the second harmonic and 180 Hz is the third harmonic; some electronic devices, such as ballasts or power supplies, can cause harmonic distortion, directly affecting power quality.
High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps
In HID lamps, an arc passing between two cathodes in a pressurized tube cause various metallic additives to vaporize and release large amounts of light. All HID lamps offer outstanding energy efficiency and service life. Metal halide lamps also offer good to excellent color rendering index (CRI).
The restarting of a previously operating lamp shortly after turn-off. Hot ignition is a high performance feature in many OSRAM discharge lamp types.
Light arriving at a surface, expressed in lumens per unit area; 1 lumen per square foot equals 1 footcandle, while 1 lumen per square meter equals 1 Lux.
A light source that generates light utilizing a think filament wire (usually tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it. Regular incandescent lamps produce light by passing an electric current through a filament in a vacuum or gas-filled bulb. They provide low initial cost, good color rendition and excellent optical control.
The measure of the amount of light a lamp produces after it has been operating 100 hours.
Instant start (IS) vs. rapid start (RS)
Instant start (high voltage is applied across the lamp with no preheating of the cathode) is the most energy efficient starting method for fluorescent lamp ballasting. IS ballasts use 1.5 to 2 watts less per lamp than rapid start ballast (low voltage is applied to the cathodes prior to lamp ignition and is maintained throughout operation). Other IS ballast benefits typically include parallel lamp circuitry, longer remote wiring distance, easier installation due to less complicated wiring, and capability to start lamps at 0 degrees (versus 50 degrees F for rapid start).
A measurement that quantifies the effect of non-linear equipment, such as lighting ballasts, on an electrical system. Lighting systems should be designed so that the transformer rating is sufficient for the ballast used (typically K-factor <4). All OSRAM SYLVANIA ballasts meet this specification.
Manufactured light source; synonymous with light bulb; the three broad categories of electric lamps are incandescent, fluorescent and high-intensity discharge.
Lamp Current Crest Factor (LCCF)
The ratio of peak lamp current to the RMS (average) lamp current. Lamp manufacturers require a LCCF of less than 1.70 in order to achieve full lamp life. Values less than 1.70 do not achieve higher than rated lamp life.
When disposing of spent lamps, always consult federal, state, local and/or provincial hazardous waste disposal rules and regulations to ensure proper disposal.
High frequency electronic ballasts provide a minimal level of lamp flicker. Lamp flicker from magnetic ballasts can cause eye fatigue for some people.
OSRAM requires that all PHOTO OPTIC lamps be fused in their applications to prevent lamp over-powering. Certain lamps contain their own internal fuse. Please ensure lamps in your specific application are fused with respect to their power source.
Radiant energy that is capable of producing a visual sensation.
Light Center Length (LCL)
The distance from a specified reference point on a lamp base to its light center, typically expressed in inches.
Linear fluorescent lamps
In a fluorescent lamp, an electric arc passing between cathodes in a tube excites mercury vapor and other gases and produces UV radiant energy. A phosphor coating on the tube then converts this energy to visible light. Fluorescent lamps are very energy efficient and provide a wide range of color responses.
Lumens-Per-Watt (LPW performance)
The number of lumens produced by a lightsource for each watt of electrical power supplied to the light source. Also see Efficacy. The LPW value is simailar in some ways to miles-per-gallon rating for a car, since it expresses what you can get out of a lamp in terms of what is put into it.
Brand name of SYLVANIA’s line of high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. These lamps are extremely energy efficient, ideal for street lighting and other non-color critical applications. This family also includes Lumalux Plus(TM)/ECO(TM)
The decrease in lumen output of a light source over time; every lamp type has a unique lumen depreciation curve (sometimes called a lumen maintenance curve) depicting the pattern of decreasing light output.
A unit of luminous flux; overall light output; quantity of light, expressed in lumens. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens and a 60-watt soft white incandescent lamps provides about 840 lumens.
A light fixture; the complete lighting unit, including lamp, reflector, ballast, socket, wiring, diffuser and housing.
Light reflected in a particular direction; the photometric quantity most closely associated with brightness
perception, measured in units of luminous intensity (candelas) per unit area (square feet or square meters).
A unit of luminance equal to 1 lumen per square meter.
Maximum Overall Length (MOL)
The total length of a lamp, from top of bulb to bottom of base, typically expressed in inches.
Mean Spherical Candela (MSCD)
The average value of the luminous intensity of a light source in all directions. To convert MSCD to Lumens, multiply by 4?(12.57).
MTBF - Mean Time Between Failures
A calculation of ballast life based on thermal conditions, component values, and circuit characteristics used to develop relative predictions of ballast life. OSRAM SYLVANIA uses methodology that typically provides a 1:10 actual life prediction based on MTBF calculations.
Referring to the lamp base pin diameters. Often referencing fluorescent lamps (T-8F and T-12F).
Brand name of SYLVANIA’s line of metal halide lamps -- the most energy efficient source of white light available today. This family also includes Metalarc Pro-Tech(R), Pulse Start and Super Saver lamps.
Represents the rated wattage consumption period. Represents the energy used to produce light. Watts= Volts x Amperes.
Also see Watt.
All OSRAM PHOTO-OPTIC lamps must be operated within the specified operational positions (base, filament, electrodes).
Provides a shorthand description of the lamp, using a unique code which can be used when ordering a lamp if you do not know the item number. An example would be: CF15EL/R30/830/MED, which translates to a 15-watt Soft White Dulux EL reflector electronic self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamp.
Parallel vs. series
Ballasts with parallel lamp circuitry have the benefit of companion lamps remaining lit, even if one of the lamps operated by the ballast should fail. Systems with series lamp wiring (magnetic ballasts and many competitors’ electronic types) result in all lamps operated on the ballast going out if one should fail.
Usually halogen lamps, means parabolic reflector lamps. A lamp fixed within a parabolic reflector, a lamp system that can use incandescent, halogen and HMI lamp types. Numeric portion of PAR description indicates actual parabolic reflector diameter size in 1/8th inch units (example: PAR 64 is a lamp whose diameter is 64/8th inch or 8 inches). Example: PAR 36, 38, 46, 56 and 64 types.
Photo-Optic lamps employ a variety of technologies to meet the very precise levels of performance required by the entertainment industry, science, medicine and other high-tech fields.
The rate at which energy is taken from an electrical system or dissipated by a load, expressed in watts; power that is generated by a utility is typically expressed in volt-amperes.
A measure of the effectiveness with which an electrical device converts volt-amperes to watts; devices with power factors (0.90) are “high power factor” devices.
Brand name of SYLVANIA’s line of high frequency electronic ballasts -- the industry’s broadest selection of instant start electronic ballasts. These ballasts ensure proper operating conditions and reduce energy consumption without sacrificing light output.
The percentage of light reflected back from a surface, the difference having been absorbed or transmitted by the surface.
See also Reflection.
If a light ray strikes a mirror- life surface, it is reflected. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection; this is called specular reflection. When a ray strikes a mat surface, light is reflected uniformly in all directions. This is called diffuse reflection. With the reflectors the rays of light are pencilled in the proper direction. See Reflectance.
An optical device to reflect light. PHOTO-OPTIC reflector lamps utilize ellipsoidal (converging light rays) or parabolic (collimating light rays) reflectors. Dichroic coated reflectors are designed to reflect visible light and pass through unwanted infrared wavelengths.
A measure of resistance to flow of current, expressed in ohms.
Ballasts should be installed and operated in compliance with the National Electric Code (NEC), Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) requirements, and all applicable codes and regulations. As it is possible to come in contact with potentially hazardous voltages, only qualified personnel should perform ballast installation. All installation, inspection, and maintenance of lighting fixtures should be done with the power to the fixture turned off.
Single pins have a mini can or D.C. bay base whereas bi- pin lamps have a bi- pin base.
Lamps having a single lamp base or point of electrical connection.
Spectral Power Distribution (SPD)
A curve illustrating the distribution of power produced by the lamp, at each wavelength across the spectrum.
A luminaire using halogen/incandescent or a high intensity discharge (HID) lamp that produces a narrow beam angle designed to illuminate a specifically defined area.
Total harmonic distortion (THD)
Excessive THD (defined by ANSI as greater than 32%) may cause adverse effects to the electrical system. THD levels below 20% provide optimal system compatibility, but levels below 10% may not add any practical benefit. 10% THD types may also introduce excessive in-rush current unless circuitry is added that limits in-rush levels.
(Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), Federal EPA regulations (RCRA of 1990) have define a TCLP test to determine whether wastes are to be treated as hazardous or non-hazardous.
Tungsten Halogen Cycle
Halogen light sources utilizing the halogen regenerative cycle to prevent blackening of the lamp envelope during life.
A measure of electrical potential, expressed in volts (V).
A unit of electrical power. Lamps are rated in watts to indicate power consumption.
Also see Nominal watts.
Distance between two successive points of a periodic wave; the wavelengths of light are typically expressed in nanometers (nm), or billionths of a meter.
As a function of an elliptical reflector, light is collected and converged into a specific area a certain distance in front of the lamp. Lamp alignment can be provided for specific illumination and color qualities at the designated area.